Protected Areas

Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: Conservation Trust Funds and Projects; Comparative Advantages

Various financial mechanisms exist to support Protected Areas (PA) and/or PA systems. Among them are Conservation Trust Funds (CTFs). CTFs are institutions that can manage various financing mechanisms including, but not limited to, endowment funds, sinking funds, revolving funds, or debt- for-nature swaps. Other financial mechanisms have been applied to support PA or PA systems such as traditional short-term donor project support, government budget allocations, taxes and park revenues, etc. All these financial mechanisms can strategically complement each other and should act in synergy within the framework of a comprehensive financial strategy. This review discusses debate as to what the best financial solutions are and provides good evidence that using a combination of approaches offers the best investment option.


Author(s): Commissioned by CFA and based on work by Aequilibrium Consulting and leGroupe-conseil baastel s.p.r.l.
October 2014

Database of Protected Areas Business Plans

Government of Seychelles-UNDP-GEF Protected Area Finance and Outer Islands projects will be hosting a Business Planning workshop for Protected Areas in Seychelles in September. In preparation for this training, they have developed a database containing over 40 examples of terrestrial and marine business plans from around the world and guidelines for their development. They hope that this is also a useful resource for other countries. The projects would like to thank all the professionals that contributed literature to this resource folder.

Please feel free to share with colleagues, download and add more business plans.

If you would like any more information about the Protected Area Finance project in Seychelles please contact project coordinators.

Author(s): Andrew Rylance and Contributors
Thursday, August 31 2017

Marine Protected Areas: Smart Investments in Ocean Health

Human lives depend on marine ecosystems that are healthy, resilient and productive. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an essential tool in the recovery and protection of our ocean and the vital services it provides. The analysis shows that every dollar invested to create marine protected areas is expected to be at least tripled in benefits returned through factors like employment, coastal protection, and fisheries.

Author(s): WWF & Amsterdam's VU University
Friday, Jun 5 2015

Twenty-Two Stories of Conservation in Africa: Key Elements for Effective and Well-Governed Protected Areas in Sub-Saharan Africa

This book gathers experiences of conservationists in Africa and highlights 22 inspiring cases of PA good governance, PA management efficiency and the sustainability of conservation in the continent, It gives you an overview of what Africa can produce in terms of conservation when stakeholders, on the ground, commit themselves for the sake of African Nature.

Author(s): Edited by The IUCN Programme for African Protected Areas Conservation (PAPACO)
Thursday, Feb 19 2015

Conservation Trust Funds, Protected Area Management Effectiveness, and Conservation Outcomes: Lessons from the Global Conservation Fund

This paper attempts to answer two questions: 1) What is the relationship between conservation investments and the enabling conditions needed to achieve conservation outcomes? 2) Does stable funding correlate with a stable or improving deforestation rate? Results from analysis of this data suggest that regular, sustained investment in protected area management resulted in a statistically significant decline in deforestation rates in and around these protected areas. Additionally, we find that higher scores on management effectiveness were associated with lower deforestation rates. This suggests that monitoring the enabling conditions for effective protected area management provides a reasonable proxy for conservation outcomes as measured by changes in deforestation rates. These results make a compelling argument that Conservation Trust Funds are valuable tools to help protected areas deliver on their objectives and contribute to global conservation targets. 

Author(s): C. Bonham, M.K. Steininger, M. McGreevey, C. Stone, T. Wright, and C. Cano
November 2014

Sustainable Financing for Protected Areas: Conservation Trust Funds and Projects - Comparative Advantages

This report includes a two-phase comparative review of the advantages and disadvantages of financing PA and PA systems through CTFs versus traditional short-term donor project support. The comparative review was based on an overall scoping exercise, interviews, a web survey and case studies. It focused on African and Latin American countries and CTF’s with endowments. Overall, the review provides good evidence that using a combination of approaches offers the best investment option.

Author(s): Commissioned by CFA, based on work by Aequilibrium Consulting (2012) and LeGroupe-conseil Baastel S.P.R.L. (2013)
October 2014

Private Financing for MPAs: Concrete Experiences

This report addresses the workshop, which happened in France, last October, during the IMPAC 3 event. The objective of the workshop was to provide concrete illustrations of MPA financing through private sector sources. Specifically,the potential of instruments to fill the annual financial gap of MPAs as well as the main key factors of success were highlighted through short and impactful presentations of several case studies.

Author(s): Nicolas Pascal, Tundi Agardy, Eleanor Carter, Sandro Dujmovic Fabien Quotier and Sylvain Pioch
Saturday, Mar 22 2014

Spatial Analysis of Green Infrastructure in Europe

The objective of this report is to propose a feasible and replicable methodology for use by different entities and at varying scales, when identifying Green Infrastructure (GI) elements. The proposed methodology will help those policymakers and practitioners define a landscape GI network to identify areas where key habitats can be reconnected and the overall ecological quality of the area improved.

Author(s): European Environment Agency (EEA)
Thursday, Mar 6 2014

UNDP Tourism Concessions in Protected Natural Areas

Author(s): Andy Thompson, Peter John Massyn, Jo Pendry, John Pastorelli. 

National Strategy for the Creation and Management of Marine Protected Areas

This brochure is a summary of the national strategy for the creation and management of marine protected areas adopted in 2012. The current strategy specifies how France intends to expand its action to develop and manage the network of marine protected areas : objectives, geographical priorities and principles.

Author(s): French ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy
Tuesday, Oct 15 2013

Governance of Protected Areas: From Understanding to Action

This publication helps enhancing governance diversity and quality for the world’s protected area systems, by providing an overview of the four different protected area governance types recognised by IUCN and by offering practical guidance for countries willing to embark on the process of assessing, evaluating and improving governance for their systems of protected areas or for individual protected area sites.

Author(s): Grazia Borrini-Feyerabend, Nigel Dudley, Tilman Jaeger, Barbara Lassen, Neema Pathak Broome, Adrian Phillips and Trevor Sandwith
Thursday, Sep 12 2013

Financiamento de Áreas Naturales Protegidas: Asumiendo el Costo de la Prevención

Este estudio hace un análisis de los problemas para la gestión de APs en América Latina y el Caribe, con el objetivo de promoción de la implementación de mecanismos financieros para una gestión eficaz de las ANP.

Author(s): Alejandro Rossi, María Eugenia D´Angelo y Mariana Valls
Saturday, Apr 6 2013

Avances y Perspectivas del Manejo Forestal para uso Múltiple en Trópico Húmedo

Esta edición tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento relacionado con aspectos biofísicos, institucionales, regulatorios y socio‑económicos que influyen en el diseño, la implementación y la efectividad del manejo de uso múltiple en los bosques del trópico húmedo.

Author(s): Editor: Manuel R. Guariguata
Friday, Mar 22 2013

Ringing the Changes with a New Approach to Forest Investment

This report argues that three trends lie behind renewed investor interest in forestry: tightening supply, increasing demand, and its role as a hedge against financial uncertainty. But people with local rights invariably live in forests, however sparsely, and forests are crucial ecosystems for everyone.

Author(s): IIED
Wednesday, Jan 09 2013

Guidebook for the Development of Simplified Business Plans for Protected Areas

This guide provides a simple tool to draw up simplified Business Plans. In particular, it is designed for African Protected Marine Area managers for whom financial planning is already underway as part of various projects and programmes.

Author(s): Benjamin Landreau
Monday, Jul 09 2012

Guide to Investing in Locally Controlled Forestry

This guide offers a market-based view of development, rooted in an understanding of the globalised, free-market economy, and concentrates on a role for SMEs – the ‘missing middle’ of many developing economies.

Author(s): Dominic Elson
Tuesday, May 08 2012

Integrating Gender into Forestry Research

The manual takes into account suggestions from CIFOR staff that indicated a desire for guidance on what ‘integrating gender’ entails, and specific recommendations about what can be done, by whom and for what purpose.



Author(s): Cristina Manfre and Deborah Rubin
Tuesday, May 08 2012

Draft Comprehensive Protected Areas Policy and Framework: Increasing the Efficiency in the Collection, Administration and Investment of Protected Area

The overall objective of this consultancy is to improve the sustainability of Belize’s national protected areas system by operationalizing mechanisms aimed at increasing the efficiency in the collection, administration and reinvestment of protected areas fees in Belize.

Author(s): AHA & PACT
Wednesday, Dec 21 2011

The Threshold of Sustainability for Tourism within Protected Areas: A Quick Guide for Protected Areas Practitioners

This Quick Guide introduces a tourism management framework called the “threshold of sustainability.” It is designed to enable managers to take rapid action to mitigate the most critical threats related to tourism, while beginning to lay a solid financial foundation for tourism within PAs.



Author(s): Drumm, Andrew; McCool, Stephen; Rieger, James
Thursday, Nov 3 2011

Appui à l’élaboration des plans d’affaires des Aires Marines Protégées de Guinée-Bissau

L’objet de ce rapport de fin de mission est de faire le point sur besoins et les sources de financement pour que le réseau d’AMP Bissau-Guinéennes puisse fonctionner dans de bonnes conditions.

Author(s): Benjamin Landreau
Sunday, Jul 3 2011

Sustainable Financing Plan for Namibia´s Protected Area System

This study analizes a number of options to secure sufficient and sustainable financing for an effective Protected Area System in Namibia.

Author(s): Jane Turpie, Jon Barnes, Marie de Longcamp and Midori Paxton
Monday, Feb 28 2011

Conservation and Development: Evidence from Thai Protected Areas

This paper presents new evidence about the local effects of strictly protected areas in Thailand, combining data on socio economic outcomes from a poverty mapping study with satellite-based estimates of forest cover.

Author(s): Katharine R.E.Sims
Tuesday, Jun 1st 2010

Marine Protected Areas - Review of FGEFs Co-Financed Project Experiences

A review of experiences learnt over more than 15 years of projects in marine conservation worldwide, which points successes and areas of improvement and review lessons through eight thematic studies.

Author(s): Catherine Gabrié, Thierry Clément, Jean Roger Mercier & Héloïse You. Coordinated by Julien Calas
Thursday, May 27 2010

Evaluacion de los niveles actuales de financimiento de las AMPs

Governments and stakeholders need to asses the costs and institutional management needs of financing marine protected areas. This technical exercise enables these actors to plan ahead and implement relevant policies.

Author(s): Virginia Reyes Gatjens y Rafael Sánchez Meza
Monday, Jan 4 2010

Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas

UNDP has developed this scorecard to assist project teams and governments track their progress to make PA systems more financially sustainable.

Author(s): Andrew Bovarnick
Friday, Jan 1st 2010

A Return on Investments: the Economic Value of Colorado’s Conservation Easements

This report analyzes the State of Colorado’s financial return on public investments in conservation easements. A conservation easement is a restriction placed on a piece of property to protect its associated resources.

Author(s): The Trust for Public Land
Thursday, Dec 31 2009

Conservation: An investment that pays

This document is intended to help agency personnel and community conservationists make the case for conservation as a long-term economic investment. It aims to promote conservation for its many benefits, including the boost parks and open space can give to a community’s bottom line.

Author(s): The Trust for Public Land
Thursday, Dec 31 2009

Quanto custa uma unidade de conservação federal?

This study provides a classification of expenses and investments, as well as the identification of sources of funding and financial mechanisms, which can contribute to a more efficient management of PAs in Brazil.

Author(s): Manuela Muanis, Manoel Serrão & Leonardo Geluda / FUNBIO
Monday, Sep 21 2009

Coral reef quality and recreation fees in marine protected areas

The authors conducted a global survey of MPAs containing coral reefs to investigate what factors are important in determining the size of fees charged to recreational SCUBA divers.

Author(s): Wielgus, Balmford, Lewis, Camilo & Gerber
Friday, Jul 24 2009

El Valor de los Bienes y Servicios que las Áreas Naturales Protegidas Proveen a los Mexicanos

The study tried to identify the value of goods and services provided by natural protect areas in Mexico, in the context of the CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas.

Author(s): Juan E. Bezaury Creel, The Nature Conservancy
Friday, Jan 2 2009

Good practice guidelines for High Conservation Value assessments: A practical guide for practitioners and auditors

This document sets out good practices for the identification and management of High Conservation Values and HCV forests and areas. It provides detailed guidance on the HCV assessment process, and should be of particular use to HCV practitioners involved in planning and conducting such an assessment, and to certifying bodies auditing HCV identification reports and management plans.

Author(s): ProForest
Monday, Jun 30 2008

How Much Value Does the City of Philadelphia Receive from its Park and Recreation System

Although the parks and park programs of Philadelphia were not created specifically as an economic development tool, there is a growing realization that they are providing the city with hundreds of millions of dollars of value. This value, for the first time, is being defined through seven major factors are enumerated—clean air, clean water, tourism, direct use, health, property value and community cohesion.

Author(s): The Trust for Public Land’s Center for City Park Excellence for the Philadelphia Parks Alliance
Wednesday, Jun 18 2008

PAs and Avoided Deforestation: A Statistical Evaluation

This report aims to develop a quasi-experimental methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing deforestation, and to apply the methodology in a country that has received GEF funds. Protected areas are an important component of the GEF's biodiversity portfolio and are central to the “avoided deforestation” debate in climate change policy.

Author(s): GEF Evaluation Office
Saturday, Aug 25 2007

Anilao Paying to Play: The Dive Fees of Mabini and Tingloy

This case study on Anilao is the fourth in a series of analyses being undertaken by WWF-Philippines. This series aims to communicate key issues and lessons from field projects to fellow practitioners, program and policy staff, personnel of managed and/or protected areas, partners, and donors.

Author(s): Chrisma Salao, Alya Honasan, Ricardo Sandalo
Tuesday, May 08 2007

Conservation Finance: Strategies for Protected Areas and Protected Area Systems

This bulletin describes the protected area financial planning process and presents some of the financial mechanisms used to generate resources to finance conservation.

Author(s): Editor: Angela S. Martin
Tuesday, May 08 2007

Towards Effective Protected Areas Systems

An Action Guide to Implement the Convention on Biological Diversity Programme of Work on Protected Areas

Author(s): Nigel Dudley, Kalemani Jo Mulongoy, Sheldon Cohen, Sue Stolton, Charles Victor Barber and Sarat Babu Gidda
Saturday, Dec 31 2005

Análisis de las necesidades de financiamiento del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Ecuador

This study analizes the financing needs of 33 PAs of the National PA System of Ecuador (SNAP).

Author(s): Ministerio del Ambiente de Ecuador
Tuesday, Aug 30 2005

An Estimate of the Costs of an Effective System of Protected Areas in the Niger Delta – Congo Basin Forest Region

This paper presents an analysis of the costs of implementing a biodiversity conservation vision for the Niger Delta – Congo Basin Forest Region, a region covering the forests from Nigeria across Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Central African Republic, Congo and the DRC, based on a PA network.

Author(s): Allard Blom
Friday, Dec 31 2004

Managing Marine Protected Areas: A toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean

This Toolkit was prepared to assist MPA managers and practitioners access existing information relating to all stages of MPA establishment and management, including site selection, planning, day-to-day management, sustainable financing, management effectiveness and monitoring and evaluation.

Author(s): IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme
Monday, Mar 22 2004

Madagascar Protected Area Network Sustainable Financing: Economic Analysis Perspective

This paper is a cost/benefit evaluation of Madagascar PAs, then a benefit/loss evaluation for the concerned communities. Based on this, points for thought on PA network sustainable financing and of alternatives to deforestation are proposed.

Author(s): Jean-Christophe Carret and Denis Loyer
Thursday, Jul 3 2003

Funding Protected Areas in the Wider Caribbean: A Guide for Managers and Conservation Organizations

This document is an orientation to sources of funding for protected areas and biodiversity conservation. It is designed to serve as a primer for PA agencies and managers as well as NGOs carrying out programs of conservation, education, and sustainable uses of biodiversity resources in and around PAs.

Author(s): TNC and UNEP
Monday, Dec 31 2001

Visitor Use Fees in Protected Areas Synthesis of the North American, Costa Rican and Belizean Experience

This report provides a survey and evaluation of visitor use fee systems functioning in the US, Canada, Costa Rica and Belize. The findings and recommendations will contribute to TNC's Ecotourism Program visitor use fee and concession systems initiative.

Author(s): Cory R. Brown
Sunday, Apr 1st 2001